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NECO Fishery Essay 2023

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NECO Fishery Essay 2023

The National Examination Council (NECO) Has Scheduled The 2023 NECO Fishery Essay 2023 and Objective Questions and Answers Paper To Kick of on Friday 4th August 2023.

NECO Fishery Essay 2023


(i) pH regulation: Lime is used to adjust the pH level of the water to a suitable range for fish growth and health.
(ii) Algae control: Lime can help to control the growth of algae, which can be a problem in ponds.
(iii) Nutrient management: Lime can be used to add essential nutrients like calcium into the water that fish need for growth.
(iv) Improved Pond structure: Lime can help to improve the structure of the pond and reduce erosion.

(i) Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic animals and plants, such as fish, shellfish, seaweed, and other aquatic species.
(ii) Aquaricuture is the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of aquatic animals and plants in a controlled environment for commercial purposes.

(i) Salting involves the addition of salt alone, while brining is a combination of salt and other ingredients like lemon juice, sugar, spices etc.
(ii) Salting is usually done to enhance the flavor of the fish, while brining is done to preserve the fish.
(iii) Salting is done to the outside of the fish, while brining is done to the inside of the fish.
(iv) Salting takes more time than brining.
(v) The texture of the fish is affected differently by these two processes.

(i) Both processes involve the addition of salt.
(ii) Both processes are used to add flavor to the fish.
(iii) Both processes are used to preserve the fish.
(iv) Both processes are used to increase the shelf-life of the fish.

(i) High water quality
(ii) Minimum waste
(iii) Energy efficiency
(iv) Automation
(v) Cost effectiveness

(i) Earthen ponds have a higher oxygen exchange rate as compared to concrete ponds, allowing for better fish growth.
(ii) Earthen ponds are better at retaining heat than concrete ponds, allowing for faster growth and maturation of fish.
(iii) Earthen ponds can naturally filter out harmful substances from the water, which can help to improve the water quality.
(iv) Earthen ponds are easier and cheaper to maintain than concrete ponds.
(v) Earthen ponds are more natural looking than concrete ponds, making them more visually appealing.
(vi) Earthen ponds provide better habitat for beneficial organisms such as bacteria and microalgae which can help to improve the overall ecosystem of the pond.



Check the diagram below

(i) Rivers or streams
(ii) Lakes or ponds
(iii) Wells or boreholes

A barrage pond is a type of fish pond that is artificially constructed to store and control water for the purpose of aquaculture.

(i) Both are freshwater fish species.
(ii) Both can be found in shallow waters.
(iii) Both spawn multiple times within their life cycle.
(iv) Both are carnivorous and consume small invertebrates and plants.

Water quality parameters are physical, chemical, and biological properties of water that influence the suitability of water for human consumption or aquatic life.

(i) Increasing the surface area of water.
(ii) Adding oxygen diffusers or oxygenation systems.
(iii) Increasing water circulation and flow.
(iv) Planting oxygenating plants.
(v) Limiting fish stocking densities.
(vi) Managing organic matter.

(i) Polyculture involves culture of two or more compatible species of fish in the same pond while integrated fish farming involves culture of fish along with other livestock and/or crops.
(ii) In polyculture, all the species grown share the resources available in the pond while in integrated fish farming, there is specialization and division of labour among the species.
(iii) Polyculture helps in reducing the risk of diseases because fish in the same pond have genetic diversification while integrated fish farming makes use of animals of different species.
(iv) Polyculture involves interdependent species so, if one species fails to thrive, the whole system fails while integrated fish farming has multiple layers of support resulting in a more secure system.


Fish preservation involves methods of preventing or slowing down the spoilage of fish after harvest. This can be done through methods like chilling, freezing, salting, smoking, drying, and canning.

Fish processing, on the other hand, involves the transformation of fish into forms that are ready for consumption or further processing. This includes methods like filleting, skinning, deboning, mincing, and grinding.

– Refrigerators or freezers
– Coolers or ice boxes
– Salt
– Smokehouses
– Drying racks

– Refrigerators or freezers operate by using a circulating refrigerant gas that absorbs heat from the fish and expels it outside. This leads to a reduction in temperature, which helps to slow down bacterial growth and preserve the fish.
– Salt is used as a preservation method primarily for fish that are to be cured or dried. The fish is coated with salt, which draws out moisture and creates an environment that is not conducive for microbial growth.
– Smokehouses are used for smoking fish, which involves exposing it to smoke from burning wood chips. This imparts a distinctive flavor and color to the fish, and also helps to preserve it by slowing down the growth of bacteria and parasites.

– Moringa: This is a plant that is commonly used in traditional medicine and as a food source in many parts of the world. The leaves of the moringa tree can be dried and ground into a powder, which can be added to fish feed to boost its nutrient content. Moringa is rich in vitamins, minerals, and protein, and has antioxidant properties that help to improve fish health and growth.
– Soybean: Soybean meal is a popular ingredient in fish feed due to its high protein content and amino acid composition. Soybean is a plant-based protein source that is easily digestible by fish, and can be used as a substitute for fishmeal, which is a finite resource.

– Manual method of fish feeding involves hand-feeding fish at regular intervals. This is usually done in small-scale fish farms or recreational ponds, where the number of fish is manageable. The feed can be delivered directly to the water surface, or scattered over the pond.
– Feeding frequency refers to the number of times per day that fish are fed. This can vary depending on the species of fish, their age and size, and the conditions of the pond. Generally, fingerlings and juveniles require more frequent feeding than adult fish. Overfeeding can lead to water pollution and disease outbreaks, while underfeeding can result in stunted growth and poor health.

– Both plastic ponds and tarpaulin ponds are types of portable or temporary fish ponds that can be easily set up and dismantled.
– They are both made from lightweight and durable materials that are resistant to punctures, tears, and UV damage. This makes them ideal for outdoor use, especially in areas where land is scarce or expensive.


Fishing is the activity of catching, harvesting, or capturing fish and other aquatic organisms from their natural habitats, usually for commercial, recreational, or subsistence purposes.

(i)Fishing Nets
(ii)Fishing Hooks and Lines
(iii)Fishing Traps

To calculate the area of the pond in square meters (m^2), We use the formula: Area = Length × Breadth

Length = 50,000 cm
Breadth = 25,000 cm

First, convert the measurements to meters:
Length = 50,000 cm ÷ 100 cm/m = 500 meters
Breadth = 25,000 cm ÷ 100 cm/m = 250 meters

Now, calculate the area:
Area = 500 meters × 250 meters = 125,000 square meters (m^2)

– Endo-parasite: An endo-parasite is a parasite that lives inside the host’s body, such as in organs, tissues, or blood vessels.
– Ecto-parasite: An ecto-parasite is a parasite that lives on the host’s body surface, such as the skin, fins, or gills.

(i)Weight loss and reduced growth rate.
(ii)Increased mucus production and skin irritation.
(iii)Abnormal swimming behavior, such as flashing or rubbing against objects.
(iv)Fins clamping or fin erosion.
(v)Presence of visible parasites on the fish’s body or gills.

(i)Install a strong and secure fence around the pond to prevent alligator access.
(ii)Implement regular monitoring and surveillance to detect any alligator presence early and take appropriate action.
(iii)Educate and inform people in the area about alligator behavior and safety measures to prevent future incidents.

(i)Both are passive fishing gears that rely on fish swimming into them to be captured.
(ii)They are widely used in commercial fishing to catch a variety of fish species and are designed to be efficient in their respective fishing environments.



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