WAEC History 2023 Questions and Answers

WAEC History 2023 Questions and Answers

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WAEC History 2023 Questions And Answers Expo

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Has Scheduled The Waec History 2023 Paper To Kick Of On The 30th May, 2023.

This brings the attention of candidates writing the exam in to searching for Waec History 2023 Questions And Answers, WAEC history Expo 2023, waec history question and answer 2023, 2023 Waec History Questions and Answers and etc.

Waec History 2023 Questions And Answers

In this section, you will read the steps and requirements needed for you to get Waec History 2023 Questions And Answers before exam.

WAEC History 2023 Paper is Categorized in to 2 parts:

  • WAEC History Essay 2023
  • WAEC History Objective 2023

Here on zamgist, we have solved all the questions. That is Waec 2023 History Essay and Objective 2023.

WAEC History 2023 Questions and Answers



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WAEC History Answers 2023

(i) Pottery shards
(ii) Stone tools
(iii) Ancient coins
(iv) Bone fragments
(v) Metal artifacts
(vi) Ceramic figurines
(vii) Clay tablets with inscriptions
(viii) Burial goods
(ix) Accumulations of discarded shellfish remains

(i) Site Destruction: Archaeological sites can be easily damaged or destroyed by natural processes, construction projects, looting, or even unintentional human activities. Once a site is destroyed, valuable historical and cultural information is lost forever.

(ii) Limited Resources: Archaeological research often requires substantial funding and resources. Limited financial support can hinder excavations, laboratory analysis, preservation efforts, and publication of findings, leading to incomplete or delayed research.

(iii) Ethical Dilemmas: Archaeologists face ethical challenges concerning the excavation and handling of human remains, sacred artifacts, and culturally sensitive materials. Balancing the pursuit of knowledge with respect for indigenous rights and cultural heritage can be complex and controversial.

(iv) Fragmentary Evidence: Archaeologists primarily work with fragments of the past, such as broken pottery, decayed organic materials, or incomplete structures. Reconstructing ancient societies from these fragments requires skill, interpretation, and a deep understanding of the context.

(v) Interpretive Bias: Archaeological interpretation is influenced by the cultural backgrounds, assumptions, and preconceptions of the researchers. This can introduce bias into the analysis, potentially distorting the understanding of past societies and their behaviors.

(vi) Limited Accessibility: Many archaeological sites are located in remote or politically unstable regions, making them difficult to access. This limits the ability of researchers to study and document these sites fully, resulting in gaps in our understanding of human history.

(vii) Repatriation and Cultural Heritage: The ownership and repatriation of cultural artifacts can be a contentious issue. Disputes arise when artifacts have been removed from their countries of origin and are now held in museums or private collections in other countries. Finding a balance between preservation and the rights of communities to their cultural heritage is an ongoing challenge.

(viii) Public Engagement and Awareness: Archaeology often struggles to engage and communicate with the wider public effectively. Limited public awareness and understanding of archaeological methods and discoveries can hinder support for research funding, preservation efforts, and the protection of archaeological sites.

(i) Autonomous Regional Governance: Non-centralized states in Nigeria often have autonomous regional governance structures. These regions have a level of self-governance and decision-making power, allowing them to manage their affairs to some extent.

(ii) Greater Resource Control: Non-centralized states have greater control over the resources within their boundaries. This includes natural resources such as oil, minerals, and agricultural products. They can negotiate and manage the exploitation of these resources and retain a larger share of the revenue generated.

(iii) Revenue Allocation: Non-centralized states have the authority to allocate and manage their own revenue. They can collect taxes, fees, and levies, and have the power to determine how these funds are spent within their jurisdiction.

(iv) Local Legislation: Non-centralized states can enact and enforce laws specific to their region. They have legislative bodies, such as state assemblies, which can pass laws and regulations that are applicable within their boundaries, as long as they do not conflict with federal laws.

(v) Independent Judiciary: Non-centralized states have their own judicial systems, with independent courts that can adjudicate legal matters within their jurisdiction. They can interpret and apply both state and federal laws within the scope of their authority.

(vi) Education Policies: Non-centralized states have the power to shape and implement their own education policies. They can establish educational institutions, develop curriculum guidelines, and make decisions regarding educational standards and practices.

(vii) Health Service Provision: Non-centralized states are responsible for the provision of healthcare services within their jurisdictions. They can establish and manage healthcare facilities, implement health policies, and regulate the healthcare sector to meet the specific needs of their population.

(viii) Infrastructure Development: Non-centralized states have the authority to plan, fund, and implement infrastructure projects within their boundaries. This includes the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, power plants, water supply systems, and other essential infrastructure.

(ix) Cultural Preservation: Non-centralized states have the ability to promote and preserve their unique cultural heritage. They can develop cultural policies, support cultural institutions, and safeguard traditional practices, languages, and customs specific to their region.

(x) Local Economic Development: Non-centralized states can pursue economic development strategies tailored to their region’s needs and potentials. They can attract investments, promote local industries, and implement policies that stimulate economic growth and job creation within their jurisdiction.




(i) Afonja
(ii) Alimi
(iii) Kosoko

(i) Political development: The wars helped shape the political landscape of Nigeria by leading to the emergence of powerful kingdoms and city-states such as Oyo, Ibadan and Ife.

(ii) Cultural preservation: The wars played a key role in preserving Yoruba culture, traditions and beliefs, which have been passed down from generation to generation.

(iii) Economic impact: The wars disrupted trade and commerce, resulting in the decline of some Yoruba towns and the rise of others.

(iv) Colonial influence: The wars paved the way for the eventual colonization of Nigeria by the British, as they took advantage of the political instability and fragmentation caused by the wars to establish their authority over the region.

(i) Advocacy against slavery: Christian missionaries actively spoke out against the institution of slavery, condemning its immorality and advocating for its abolition. They preached about the equality and dignity of all human beings, emphasizing the inherent worth of slaves.

(ii) Education and enlightenment: Missionaries established schools and educational institutions in Nigeria, providing slaves and freed individuals with opportunities for education. By imparting knowledge and critical thinking skills, they empowered individuals to question the legitimacy of slavery and understand their rights.

(iii) Conversion of slave owners: Through their religious teachings, missionaries sought to convert slave owners to Christianity, hoping to instill in them a sense of compassion, empathy, and respect for human life. This conversion often challenged the notion of slave ownership and promoted a more humane treatment of slaves.

(iv) Liberation of slaves: Missionaries actively participated in the liberation of slaves. They bought slaves from their owners, negotiated for their freedom, and provided shelter and support for freed individuals. In some cases, missionaries facilitated the establishment of self-sustaining communities for freed slaves.

(v) Promotion of indigenous leadership: Missionaries trained and educated indigenous leaders to take charge of their communities. By empowering local leaders, missionaries ensured the sustainability of their efforts against slavery and promoted self-governance among the people.

(vi) Documentation and reporting: Christian missionaries documented the horrors of the slave trade, including firsthand accounts of its brutality. They sent reports to their home countries, raising awareness and generating public support for the abolitionist movement.

(vii) Collaboration with abolitionist societies: Missionaries collaborated with abolitionist societies and organizations in Europe and the United States. They shared information, coordinated efforts, and leveraged international pressure to bring an end to the trans-Atlantic slave trade.

(viii) Cultural transformation: Through their teachings, missionaries fostered a cultural transformation that challenged the social acceptance of slavery. They emphasized the principles of equality, justice, and compassion, which gradually shifted societal attitudes and contributed to the eventual eradication of the slave trade.




(i) Economic Growth: Peaceful coexistence among the diverse ethnic groups in Nigeria has led to economic growth. The country has seen significant development in sectors such as agriculture, telecommunications, and infrastructure, leading to job creation and increased revenue generation.

(ii) Cultural Exchange: The diverse cultural groups in Nigeria have had the opportunity to learn from one another and appreciate each other’s culture through peaceful coexistence. This has enhanced cultural exchange and national unity amongst the various ethnic groups.

(iii) Tourism: Peaceful coexistence has also contributed positively to the tourism industry in Nigeria. The country’s natural resources like waterfalls, beaches, wildlife, and historical sites have attracted tourists from all over the world, contributing to Nigeria’s revenue.

(iv) Political Stability: Peaceful coexistence creates a conducive environment for political stability. The country has been able to conduct free and fair elections, which have led to the smooth transfer of power from one government to the other.

(v) Social Harmony: Peaceful coexistence has fostered social harmony, where individuals from different backgrounds can live and work together peacefully. This has resulted in increased social cohesion and reduced instances of discrimination, ethnic tension, and violence.




(i) Oba’s Court: The Oba’s Court was the most important socio-political organization in Benin during the 19th century.It served as the seat of power and was responsible for governing the kingdom. The Oba was the head of the court and he held the most power in the kingdom. The Oba’s court was also responsible for preserving the kingdom’s culture and traditions

(ii) Eghaevbo N’ore: Eghaevbo N’ore was a council of elders that advised the Oba on matters of governance, including legal issues and the appointment of officials. The council was composed of highly revered and respected individuals who represented different lineages in the kingdom.

(iii) Ekine Society: The Ekine Society was a secret society that served as a social, religious, and political organization. Its members were men who had attained a certain level of success in society and were initiated into the society upon meeting certain criteria. The Ekine Society was known for its use of drums, dances, and other forms of cultural expression.

(iv) Iwebo: Iwebo was a society of women who played important roles in the governance of the kingdom. They performed various functions, including the collection of taxes, the maintenance of roads and other infrastructure, and the provision of social services. Iwebo also had a role in resolving disputes and promoting peace within the kingdom.

(v) Age Grade System: The Age Grade System was a socio-political organization that grouped individuals according to their age and provided a framework for social, economic, and political activities. Each age grade had specific roles and responsibilities, and individuals moved through the age grades as they matured. The age grade system served as a means of socializing young people into the norms and values of the kingdom and provided a platform for political participation.

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