WAEC Government Obj & Theory Questions & Answers – 2020 May/June Exam

 


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WAEC Government Answers – 2020 May/June Exam


GOVERNMENT 2020 SOLUTIONS

 

Numbers completed:

9

10


GOVERNMENT INSTRUCTIONS

 

Answer four questions in all, choose any two questions from Section A and two from Section B


GOVERNMENT OBJECTIVE

 

1 – 10 : ACDCABBCCD

11-20: DCAABBCDCD

21-30: AAABBABDAB

31-40: CCACCABBBD

41-50: DBDDBDBBDC


(1a)

Political socialization is the process of acquisition and transmission of political knowledge and value by individuals from one generation to another.

 

(1b)

(i) It involves the transmission of values and beliefs of the political culture by one generation to the next.

 

(ii) Political Culture is maintained and changed through political socialisation. The values, beliefs and orientations towards political objects and actions are transmitted as well as changed by this process.

 

(iii) Political Socialisation is a lifelong learning process but its pace and role keeps on changing from time to time. The process goes on continuously throughout the life of the individual.

 

(iv) Political Socialisation provides the necessary knowledge and incentive for individual’s participation in politics. Politically socialised individuals come forward to accept different roles in the political system.

 

(v) In nature, Political Socialisation is similar to, in fact, a part of the process of socialisation which is always at work in every society.

 

(vi) Finally, Political Socialisation is an extremely important process by which individuals become involved in the activities of the political system. The nature and level of political participation of the individuals depend to a large extent upon the nature and efficiency of the process of political socialisation.

 

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(2)

(i) Constitutional division of power: Powers are constitutionally shared between the central authority and other component units.

(ii) Written and Rigid constitution: Codification of constitution on a single document/book which is difficult to amend.

(iii) Powers derived from the constitution: The three tiers of government derived their powers from the constitution.

(iv) Supremacy of the constitution: Constitution/law is strictly adhered as a regulation which everybody is subject to.

(v) Separation of power: Adoption of the theory of separation of power which enables the arms of government to function independently in order not to have clash of powers.
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3a)

Public corporation means an entity that is created by the state to carry out public missions and services. In order to carry out these public missions and services, a public corporation participates in activities or provides services that are also provided by private enterprise.

 

3b)

Judicial Control or Court Order:

The court can declare an act made by a corporation illegal or unconstitutional. This is done when the corporation is breaching the Act upon which it was set up.

 

Auditing:

The accounts of public corporations are always audited by a body of auditors set up by legislature.

 

Approval of Loans and Expenditure:

The minister approves any loan to be taken and also the major expenditures.

 

Acts of Parliament:

The powers of the corporations are situated in the Acts passed by legislature.

 

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NUMBER 4

 

1 Governments Can be More Responsive to Citizens

The closer a government entity is to its citizens, the more likely it is the respond to the needs of citizens. States are more likely to listen to citizen needs, and respond to them, than the national government would be.

 

2. Federalism improves efficiency

Even though we may think of hundreds of governments as inefficient, governing the entire nation from one central location would be even worse. Imagine the bureaucracy, red tape, delays, and confusion if every government activity in every community in the nation—police, schools, roads, fire departments, garbage collections, sewage disposal, street lighting, and

 

3. A Better Understanding

The central government has no true way to understand what issues and changes need to be made in every area of the country. This is why federalism is such a great advantage. The smaller branches of the local governments are right in the middle of the local society. They are better suited to deal with the true things that need to be changed.

 

4. Federalism helps manage conflict

Permitting states and communities to pursue their own policies reduces the pressures that would build up at the national level if the national government had to decide everything. Federalism permits citizens to decide many things at the state and local levels of government and avoid battling over single national policies to be applied uniformly throughout the land.

 

5. Federalism embraces diversity

Federalism, a system of government in which entities such as states or provinces share power with a national government, permits diversity and accommodates the differences between people and regions to create stronger components, which make a stronger nation.


No 5

 

Constitutional Safeguards

One way to safeguard the rights and liberties of the citizen is to entrench the relevant clauses in the constitution. An entrenched clause is difficult to change so the right of the citizen is constantly protected.

 

 Free Press

A free and independent press can also help to safeguard the rights of citizens in a state. This happens because the newspapers serve as a mouth piece to voice out any abuses of the rights of citizens. With their existence also, officials fear being exposed if they took certain actions. Thus the rights of the citizen are protected.

 An Ombudsman

The duty of this outfit is to investigate abuses of human rights and liberties of citizens by appointees of the government and to find a means of resolving them. The office of the Ombudsman is sometimes designated the Parliamentary Commissioner or Commissioner on Human Rights and Administrative Justice. Their main duty is to investigate abuses of human rights and liberties to be able it to offer redress.

 An Independent Judiciary

There must exist, an independent judiciary to adjudicate disputes that may arise among citizens and between citizens and their governments or government officials. The disputes must be settled by an impartial court. Such impartiality of the judiciary serves to protect the liberties of the citizens.

 

 An efficient law Enforcement agency 

Another way of protecting the rights of citizens is to ensure the existence of and efficient police organization which can protect the rights of the citizens and make sure those rights are enjoyed to the full by the citizens. An efficient Police Force ensures the maintenance of law and order and once there is law and order, it is easy to for every citizen to enjoy his or her rights.

 

 Doctrine of Checks and Balances

Under this doctrine the three arms of government, the legislature, executive and the judiciary check each other in the performance of their duties. These checks and balances inure to the benefit of citizens because it serves as a means by which the rights of the individual are protected.


6)

 

1) threats from poverty, disease, and environmental breakdown (the threats to human security identified in the Millennium Development Goals)

2) threats from conflict between states

3) threats from violence and massive human rights violations within states

4)threats from terrorism

5) threats from the proliferation of weapons – particularly WMD, but also conventional

9)

1) The constitution is not a product of any constitutional conference. It was hurriedly prepared by the outgoing military government of General Abdulsalam Abubakar. Thus, many Nigerians continue to criticize it and see it more as a military constitution than the civilian constitution.

2.The constitution fails to define the roles of the traditional rulers in government

3.The constitution is not clear on the functions and creation of the local governments. This makes local governments to be at the mercy of the other governments. Then, this issue of creation of more local governments has been a major source of conflict between states and federal governments. A classical example was Lagos vs Federal Government during Obasanjo’s administration.

4.The exclusive list is too bogus. It makes the federal government to be too dominant, while the states and local governments become unnecessarily dependent on the centre.

5.Powers of the President are too much. This makes some presidents to abuse the office and disregard the powers of the other organs.


Q10a

 

Pick any three

 

1. no centralized administration;

 

2. the compound was the unit of administration;

 

3. absence of formal political institutions;

 

4.fusion of religious, judicial and political functions in governance;

 

5. significant position of the age-grades;

 

6. the family heads played important role in the administration of the village;

 

7. title holders (Ozo title) played significant role in the traditional political system;

 

8. decisions were reached by consensus;

 

9. succession to leadership was not hereditary but based on achievement;

 

10. there was the principle of checks and balances.

(10b)

(i) The village Assembly which exercise power on the societal administration reach their decisions through concensus. Thus democratic

(ii) The rulership of the village is by people’s consent as virtually all the grown ups are involved in the general administration

(iii) Rule of law holds sway in the Igbo administration as customs and traditions are daily adhered to

(iv) Membership of the decentralised organs in the village are open and duly followed against any act of malpractice


 

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