WAEC GCE Literature In English 2023 Questions And Answers [Drama & Poetry] - ZAMGIST
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WAEC GCE Literature In English 2023 Questions And Answers [Drama & Poetry]

Waec GCE Literature In English 2022 Questions And Answers
Written by Kazeem


WAEC GCE Literature In English 2023 Questions And Answers

The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Has Scheduled The WAEC GCE Literature In English 2022 Drama & Poetry Paper To Kick Of On The 3rd February, 2023.

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Waec GCE Literature In English 2023 Questions And Answers

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Pat Waec gce literature Drama and Poetry Answers

The tragic theme of a colonial rule is introduced at the beginning of the play when Gbanya narrates the dreams he had last night to Yoko on how the Governor humiliated him in the eyes of his people. Gbanya vows to receive and treat the Governor well in order not to incur his wrath.

This shows that the setting of the play is connected to a pre-colonial era where Governors were appointed to oversee the activities of African communities. And some of these Governors, representatives of Imperial Majesty tend to overzealously exploit the people but also treat them as sub-humans or humiliate them when the people in the community err against them and that is exactly what Dr. Samuel Rowe, the Governor does to Gbanya when he finds out that the people have not stopped engaging in the war despite his stern warning to desist from such barbaric act.

As a punitive measure or punishment, Gbanya the chief of Senehun is humiliated before his people. Rowe orders the soldiers to stretch Gbanya out on the ground. He also fires a shot from his pistol in the air to threaten Lavalie and Ndapi not to retaliate, Rowe takes the rice and cattle Gbanya entertained him with and zoom off.

Moreover, colonial domination also makes the chief and the people, not to have confidence in themselves because they feel and believe that the Governor, the white man is awash with superior and supreme power.

That is why even when Rowe sends his Messengers to Moyamba, the people especially the chief treat him well like the Imperial Majesty herself.

Lastly, the people receive a dirty slaps on their faces when the Governor turns against them to gives out a portion of land that belongs to them to the chiefdom of Bo.

He sends a message through his messenger stating that the message came from his Highness, the Governor South of Bandajama, the six villages to the north of the Tabe River now belong to the people of the chiefdom of Bo.


Maya’s childhood was spent at Momma’s Store, an important gathering spot in Stamps. She observes the cycles of nature and works there, caring for plantation owners and canners during
the cotton-picking season and the slaughtering season,
respectively. Maya recalls that the Store was her favourite place
until she left Arkansas for good at thirteen.

Another symbol is a doll that arrives as a Christmas gift from
Angelou’s mother, who has abandoned her. Because the doll is
white, has blue eyes, rosy cheeks, and yellow hair. Maya
struggles with the thought that beauty equates to being white
once more. As a result, she is confronted with yet another
example of unreachable beauty. The doll, however, also
represents abandonment. Angelou had assumed her parents had
died up to that point. However, the doll serves as a bitter


The play examines the idea of courtship and marriage from two perspectives. African tradition and European ideas of marriage and same was achieved by the use of lakunle which views in an european life style while baroke in a traditional culture. The former is basically practical which involves the payment of bride price.

Sidi at first confesses to Lakunle that she is willing to marry him any day, any time, but the full bride price must be paid in full because there is a thin line between bride price and virginity. Sidi further reveals that marriage without the payment of bride price sells her shame and signifies that she’s not a virgin.

Lakunle who does not welcome the idea of payment of bride price describes such custom as outdated, savage, and barbaric. he opposes this idea because of his influence on the western concept of gender equality.

He thinks that bride price is uncivilized and outrageous custom.

Lakunle envisages a society that will respect and not see women as a beast of burden or use and dumped commodity, but one which will see women as companions and their rights are equally protected by men, unlike Baroka who feels that women have no say in the affair of marriage and the home front.

Sidi’s two eligible suitors (Lakunle and Baroka) are driven by different ideas. Lakunle wants to woo Sidi with empty, unrealistic, imaginary, and vague western ideas; for he promises her sophisticated life of western cultures which involves eating with cutleries (knives and forks), walking side by side in the street, kiss her as all educated men do but Sidi dislikes such practices.

Baroka on his part is devising a special plan to woo and win her. Firstly, he sends Sadiku to woo her on his behalf but Sidi turns down the offer of marriage.

Baroka then deceives Sadiku that he is impotent in order to lure Sidi into his shady plan. Sid visits Baroka to mock him for his impotence but ends up in his seduction trap.

In the end, Sidi rejects Lakunle’s western ideas and chooses the traditional lifestyle championed by Baroka. Baroka is polygamous in nature whereas the latter belives in one woman to one man.

In African society, bride price is considered to be the most important part of a marriage rite such that any married woman without it is branded as illegal and unrecognized. In some African communities, children raised or given birth to in such marriage are taken away from their father.


The play centers on class struggle in our society. Jimmy comes from a middle class (working class ) background, but has been highly educated. He went to a university but not gainfully employed. He is still stuck running to sweet stall, and he does not feel fully comfortable and hasn’t been accepted into the upper classes. He speaks and uses Jaw breaking words, read newspapers, but he sometimes has to look these words up in a dictionary.

Alison and Jimmy’s relationship is the main meeting point where class struggle unfolds. Alison is from an upper class background very different from Jimmy’s. Both portray the struggle between the two classes in military terms as the two just can’t blend. Jimmy is full of pride because of his education and this makes him alienate, separate and look down on others who are not so educated like himself, Cliff is such a character in the text.


Cory is Troy and Rose’s teenage son. He is an ambitious young man who has the talent and determination to realize his dreams. He is a very respectful and compassionate nephew to his disabled uncle Gabriel. He is quite passionate and optimistic about great future to become a footballer and he needs to actualize it through his father’s support and love, but contrarily unmet by the pessimism of his father. His father, Troy believes that he can’t excel as a result of racism. He prefers him to read more books to get promoted in his A & P Job, or learn how to fix cars or build houses or learn a trade. Troy views Cory’s career aspirations as idealistic and detached from the realities of a racist society where the white dominate world of sports will not support his son’s dream of becoming a footballer.


he is undaunted by Troy’s bully and this makes Cory hate him vehemently. He refuses to attend Troy’s funeral because of his father’s hard handedness. he exhibited same when he started that he’s not going to papa’s funeral… the whole time… living in his house… papa was like a shadow that followed you everywhere. It weighed on you and sunk into your flesh” Cory bursts out with rage. He does not want to be Troy Maxson, he wants to be himself. He says this to stand up to his father who is not willing to support his dreams.

August Wilson the writer uses Cory as an opposing force to Troy’s views and values for which Troy stands for and the clash before both is the central conflict in the play. Cory undergoes transformation when she leaves home to join the marines in the end.


The language of the poem is simple and straightforward which is a form of hymn of praise to the black woman-not only as an individual, but also as a symbol of African woman and as a representative of her race. There is also the poet’s response to this beauty, as the black woman is perceived in both sensory and emotional ways. He seems to summarize her qualities, beginning with a description for the natural woman, who is seen in the terms of ripe fruit, black wine, a Savannah that shudders beneath the caresses of the east and an object – a sculpted drum that responds to touch. The poem is therefore written in free verse.

The expression “Naked woman”. Takes our minds to a woman who is completely naked or nude whereas the poem is not about a woman who does not wear any clothes. Also, “Jealous fate” in the line is a euphemism for “death”.

black woman” is repeated throughout the poem for emphasis and to buttress the tone of the poem.


The imagery which is prominent in the poem is that of mourning, anguish and destruction. Aspens or nature is seen as a slender and tender woman. The persona hates to see her life being cut short by overzealous human beings.

The reflection of imagery was potrayed when the poet talked about man’s destruction of nature by cutting down of trees generally results to climatic change which has become a bane in 20th century society. This can have a range of impacts on physical, mental and poor air quality. It can also affect both humans and animals in that environment. And that is why the persona laments bitterly in order discouraging humans from rendering poplars useless so as to secure our environment. That is also why the speaker compares the beauty of the poplar trees to that of a beautiful woman who is slender and tender, because nature is very attractive and fascinating. He also sees the act of cutting down those poplars as a way of removing one’s eyeball using hyperbole and personification to explain the importance of aspens in our environment.


“Caged Bird” is a metaphor or symbol of downtrodden African- Americans and their experiences in the hands of the whites. The caged bird in the poem symbolizes the blacks, who are unduly maltreated and humiliated as result of the color of their skins. They have been dehumanized one way or the other. They are in solitary confinement as they rarely see through the opportunity around them, for their dreams for brighter future are not even guaranteed.

The “Caged bird is symbolical for oppressed Africa-Americans while the “freed bird” represents the whites (oppressors). The wind seems fast a “The caged” is also figurative as it represents the overcrowded slum (environment) the blacks have been confined to ‘narrow cage’ represents torment and poverty ‘float’ downstream is symbolic of backwardness and retrogression; Blacks are seen as people without identify. The free bird thinks of another breeze” depicts persistent oppression: for the oppressor continues to complicate the conditions of the blacks “Grave of dreams” is a metaphor for hope and aspiration.

The animal imagery such as ‘Caged Bird’ projects the picture of African-Americans (blacks) who have been marginalized by the white race. The wings of the caged bird are cut off and feet tied. This represents the frustration, maltreatment and anguish experienced by the blacks. This unsparing nature of the situation underscores the enormity of hopelessness and oppression faced by blacks. The freed bird is also an imagery of the Americans (western world) who unleashed hatred on the African-Americans as a result of their skin color.

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