WAEC GCE Government 2023 Questions And Answers – 2nd Series

WAEC GCE 2022 Literature Prose and objective Questions and Answers

WAEC GCE Government 2023 Questions And Answers – 2nd Series

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The West African Examination Council (WAEC) Has Scheduled The Waec GCE Government 2023 Paper To Kick Of On The 15th November, 2023.

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WAEC GCE Government 2023 Questions And Answers

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Waec GCE Government Expo 2023 – 2nd Series

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WAEC GCE Government 2023/2024 Questions And Answers

WAEC GCE Government Objective 2023



WAEC GCE Government Essay 2023 – Second Series




(i) Representation: A multi-party system ensures that various social, economic, and cultural groups have the opportunity to be represented in government. It allows for a broader range of perspectives and interests to be heard and considered, enhancing inclusivity.

(ii) Accountability: Multiple parties provide a system of checks and balances, as different parties can hold each other accountable. Opposition parties play a crucial role in questioning and scrutinizing the ruling party’s policies and actions, promoting transparency, and reducing the risk of corruption.

(iii) Policy development: With multiple parties, there is a greater diversity of policy proposals and ideas. This diversity encourages constructive debates and discussions, leading to the development of more comprehensive and well-thought-out policies that address a broader range of societal needs.

(iv) Competition: The presence of multiple parties fosters healthy competition among politicians. In order to win elections, parties must appeal to a wider range of voters, which can incentivize them to focus on the needs and concerns of the people. Competition encourages parties to constantly improve their policies and performance.

(v) Flexibility: A multi-party system allows for more flexibility in responding to changing societal needs. As different parties hold diverse views on various issues, governments can adapt to new challenges, societal changes, and emerging priorities more effectively.

(vi) Participation and engagement: With a larger number of parties, citizens are more likely to find a party that aligns with their values and beliefs, leading to increased political engagement. This engagement fosters a vibrant political culture and encourages citizens to actively participate in democratic processes, such as voting and joining political parties.

(vii) Coalition Governments: In multi-party systems, coalitions are often necessary to form a government. Coalition governments require parties to negotiate and build consensus on policies, fostering cooperation and compromise. This collaborative approach can result in more stable and inclusive governance.

(viii) Minority Representation: Increasing the number of parties can lead to better representation of minorities and marginalized communities. Smaller parties advocating for specific issues or representing specific communities can gain a voice and influence in the political arena, promoting equality and inclusivity.

(ix) Evolution of Ideas: Multiple parties can contribute to the evolution of political ideologies and public policies. By presenting different ideological perspectives, parties can challenge conventional views, stimulate debate, and drive the development of innovative solutions to societal challenges.

(x) Balanced Power Distribution: In a multi-party system, power is distributed among multiple parties, reducing the risk of concentration and abuse of power. This distribution ensures that decisions are made collectively and in the best interest of the broader public, preventing the dominance of a single party or individual.




(i) Separation of Powers: A constitution separates the powers of the government into three branches: the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. This ensures a system of checks and balances, preventing the concentration of power in any one branch and promoting accountability.

(ii) Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: Constitutions guarantee fundamental rights and freedoms to citizens, such as freedom of speech, religion, and assembly, as well as protection against discrimination. These rights provide individuals with legal protection and ensure their fair treatment by the state.

(iii) Rule of Law: A constitution establishes the principle of the rule of law, which means that everyone, including the government, is subject to and must abide by the law. It ensures that the government’s actions are not arbitrary and are based on established legal frameworks.

(iv) Constitutional Supremacy: Constitutions declare that they are the supreme law of the land, which means that all other laws and government actions must be consistent with the constitution. This principle ensures that the government operates within the boundaries set by the constitution and prevents the abuse of power.

(v) Electoral Processes: Constitutions outline the procedures for conducting elections and establishing representative bodies. These provisions ensure that the government is accountable to the people and that power is transferred through peaceful and democratic means.

(vi) Federalism and Devolution of Power: In countries with a federal system, a constitution defines the division of powers between the central government and regional or local governments. This system allows for a more efficient and responsive governance structure by decentralizing power.

(vii) Mechanisms for Amendment: Constitutions commonly provide procedures for amending or revising their provisions. This allows for the adaptation of the constitution to changing needs and circumstances over time, ensuring its continued relevance.

(viii) Mechanisms for Judicial Review: Constitutions empower the judiciary to review government actions, laws, and policies to ensure their compliance with constitutional provisions. Judicial review acts as a safeguard against unconstitutional acts by the government and helps maintain the integrity of the constitution.




(i) Representation: Legislators should act as a voice for their constituents, accurately representing their interests and concerns. This requires actively listening to constituents, attending community events, and engaging in dialogue to understand their needs and priorities.

(ii) Transparency: Legislators should maintain a high level of transparency in their work. This includes regular communication with constituents, providing updates on legislative actions, and explaining their positions and decisions.

(iii) Accessibility: Accessibility is key to effective representation. Legislators should be approachable and easily accessible to the public, either through regular office hours, town hall meetings, or online platforms. This ensures that constituents can voice their concerns and seek assistance when needed.

(iv) Advocacy: Legislators should advocate for their constituents’ interests at all levels of government. This involves introducing and supporting legislation relevant to their needs, engaging in committee work, and influencing policy decisions to empower and protect their constituents.

(v) Constituent Services: Legislators should provide effective and timely constituent services. This includes assisting with issues related to government services, providing resources for navigating bureaucracy, and offering support to individuals facing challenges in healthcare, education, or other areas.

(vi) Collaboration: Legislators should seek collaboration and build coalitions, both within their own party and across party lines. By working together, legislators can achieve better outcomes for their constituents and find common ground on important issues.

(vii) Accountability: Legislators should be accountable to their constituents by keeping their promises, fulfilling their commitments, and taking responsibility for their actions. This includes regularly updating constituents on their legislative efforts and being open to feedback and constructive criticism.

(viii) Engaging in Community Development: Legislators should actively contribute to the development and well-being of their constituent communities. This may involve supporting local initiatives, addressing community concerns through legislation, and fostering economic growth and opportunities for constituents.

(i) Efficiency: When the state is less involved in the day-to-day operations of state-owned enterprises, it allows for more efficient management. Private sector expertise and market-driven decision-making can lead to improved efficiency, productivity, and profitability.

(ii) Competition: Allowing private sector participation in the running of state-owned enterprises encourages competition, which can drive innovation, improve service quality, and lower costs. Competition fosters a more dynamic business environment and benefits consumers.

(iii) Financial Sustainability: State-owned enterprises often struggle with financial sustainability due to inefficiencies, mismanagement, and political interference. By reducing state involvement, these enterprises can be better positioned to operate on sound financial principles, attracting private investment and ensuring long-term viability.

(iv) Accountability: When state-owned enterprises are less influenced by political considerations, they can operate with greater accountability. Private sector management brings a focus on performance, transparency, and results, reducing the risk of corruption and mismanagement.

(v) Economic Growth: A more hands-off approach to state-owned enterprises can contribute to overall economic growth. By allowing private sector participation, it stimulates investment, job creation, and entrepreneurship. This leads to a more vibrant and competitive economy.

(i) Active Participation: Engage in the democratic process by exercising your right to vote and participating in community activities. Stay informed about local and national issues, and voice your opinions through peaceful means such as public forums, social media, or writing to your representatives.

(ii) Volunteerism: Offer your time and skills to contribute to community development initiatives. Volunteer with local organizations, schools, or NGOs that focus on areas such as education, healthcare, environmental conservation, or social welfare. Your efforts can make a meaningful impact on the lives of others.

(iii) Support Local Businesses: Patronize local businesses and entrepreneurs to stimulate economic growth. By buying locally produced goods and services, you contribute to job creation and the development of sustainable local economies.

(iv) Environmental Responsibility: Take steps to protect the environment. Practice responsible waste management, conserve energy and water, and support initiatives that promote sustainable practices. Plant trees, participate in clean-up campaigns, and raise awareness about the importance of environmental conservation.

(v) Continuous Learning: Invest in your own education and skills development. By acquiring new knowledge and skills, you can contribute to the growth of the country’s human capital. Share your knowledge with others and support initiatives that promote education and lifelong learning.




(i) Cultural Representation: Chiefs and traditional authorities serve as custodians of cultural heritage. Including them in democratic governance ensures the representation of diverse cultural perspectives, fostering a more inclusive and culturally sensitive political landscape.

(ii) Local Governance Expertise: Chiefs possess deep local knowledge and understanding of community dynamics. Involving them enhances the effectiveness of governance by tapping into their experience in addressing local issues and promoting community development.

(iii) Social Cohesion and Stability: Traditional leaders often play a crucial role in maintaining social harmony. Integrating them into democratic governance can contribute to stability by leveraging their influence to mediate conflicts and promote social cohesion within communities.

(iv) Historical Continuity: Chiefs often embody historical continuity and provide a sense of stability. By incorporating them into the democratic system, there is a bridge between traditional values and modern governance, fostering a smoother transition and preserving cultural identity.

(v) Customary Law and Conflict Resolution: Chiefs are often involved in administering customary law and resolving disputes within communities. Integrating them into democratic governance allows for a more comprehensive legal system that recognizes and respects both formal and customary legal structures.

(vi) Grassroots Connection: Traditional authorities have direct connections with the grassroots level of society. Inclusion in democratic governance ensures that policies and decisions are more attuned to the actual needs and aspirations of the local population, promoting effective and people-centric governance.

(vii) Crisis Management: During times of crisis, be it natural disasters or other emergencies, traditional leaders can play a pivotal role in mobilizing community resources and coordinating relief efforts. Their involvement enhances the overall responsiveness of governance structures.

(viii) Community Development: Chiefs often have significant influence over community resources. Integrating them into democratic governance facilitates collaboration in development projects, as they can actively participate in decision-making processes related to resource allocation and utilization for community growth.




(i) Instability: Political conflicts create an atmosphere of instability, with frequent changes in leadership, policy reversals, and uncertainty. This hampers long-term planning and discourages domestic and foreign investments.

(ii) Economic stagnation: Uncertainty caused by political conflicts discourages investment and economic growth. Businesses are less likely to expand or invest when there is political turmoil, leading to stagnant job creation and limited economic opportunities.

(iii) Diversion of resources: Political conflicts often lead to the misallocation of resources. Funds that could be invested in vital infrastructure, education, healthcare, and social programs are often diverted to sustaining the conflict or used for personal gain by political actors.

(iv) Inefficient governance: Constant conflicts and power struggles within the political system can result in inefficient governance structures. Critical decisions may be delayed or politicized, stifling progress and hindering effective public administration.

(v) Social divisions: Political conflicts exacerbate existing social divisions within Nigeria, such as ethnic and religious tensions. These divisions can lead to violence, polarization, and the breakdown of trust and cooperation among different groups, further hindering development efforts.

(vi) Brain drain: Political conflicts often push talented individuals to seek opportunities abroad, leading to a brain drain phenomenon. This deprives the country of skilled professionals, impacting sectors such as healthcare, education, and technology.

(vii) Weak institutions: Political conflicts undermine confidence in institutions and erode trust in the rule of law. Weakened institutions struggle to provide crucial services, enforce regulations, and ensure accountability, hindering development efforts.

(viii) Reduced international cooperation: Political conflicts can strain diplomatic relations, reducing international cooperation and assistance. This affects areas such as foreign direct investment, trade agreements, and development aid, limiting access to resources and expertise that could support Nigeria’s development.




(i) Lack of Member State cooperation: The UN’s effectiveness heavily relies on the cooperation and commitment of its member states. If member states do not prioritize conflict prevention or fail to contribute adequate resources and support, it can hinder the UN’s efforts.

(ii) Political divisions and rivalries: Political divisions among member states, particularly those holding veto power in the Security Council, can impede the UN’s ability to take decisive action. Rivalries and geopolitical considerations can limit consensus-building and hinder timely and effective response to conflicts.

(iii) Limited resources: The UN often faces resource constraints, including financial and logistical limitations. Limited funding can restrict the organization’s ability to carry out preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping operations, humanitarian assistance, and development initiatives, all of which are crucial in averting conflicts.

(iv) Proliferation of non-state actors: The rise of non-state actors, such as terrorist organizations or armed militias, poses significant challenges to the UN’s conflict prevention efforts. These groups often operate outside traditional state boundaries, making it difficult for the UN to engage with them and address the underlying causes of their actions.

(v) Sovereignty concerns: The principle of state sovereignty can sometimes impede the UN’s efforts in conflict prevention. Governments may be reluctant to allow external interference in their internal affairs, which can limit the UN’s ability to intervene effectively, even in situations where mass atrocities are occurring.

(vi) Weak enforcement mechanisms: The UN’s enforcement mechanisms, such as peacekeeping forces, sanctions, and international courts, can face limitations, including lack of political will, inadequate mandates, or insufficient resources. These factors can restrict the organization’s ability to ensure compliance with its decisions or resolutions.

(vii) Incomplete membership and representation: The exclusion or limited representation of certain countries or regions in the UN can undermine its credibility and effectiveness. If key stakeholders in a conflict are not adequately involved in decision-making processes, the UN’s ability to prevent conflicts can be compromised.

(viii) Complex conflicts and vested interests: Conflicts often have complex underlying causes, such as historical grievances, socio-economic disparities, or ethnic and religious tensions. Difficulties in addressing these underlying factors, coupled with vested interests of powerful actors, can hinder the UN’s ability to avert conflicts.




(i) Unity in Diversity: Federalism allows for the accommodation of Nigeria’s diverse ethnic, linguistic, and cultural groups by decentralizing power. This fosters a sense of unity while respecting and preserving the identity of individual states and regions.

(ii) Resource Distribution: The federal structure enables the equitable distribution of resources among states. This helps address economic disparities and ensures that all regions benefit from the nation’s wealth, contributing to overall stability.

(iii) Local Governance Autonomy: Federalism empowers states to govern certain internal affairs autonomously. This autonomy promotes effective and responsive local governance, as states can tailor policies to address specific regional needs and challenges.

(iv) Conflict Resolution Mechanism: Federalism provides a mechanism for resolving conflicts between the central government and states. It allows for negotiation and compromise, preventing the escalation of regional tensions.

(v) Crisis Management: During times of crisis or emergencies, federalism allows for a coordinated response. States can take swift and localized actions, complemented by support from the federal government, ensuring a more effective and targeted approach to crisis management.

(vi) Political Stability: The distribution of power across federal and state levels helps balance political influence. This can contribute to stability by preventing the concentration of power in one central authority and mitigating the risk of authoritarianism.

(vii) Cultural and Linguistic Diversity: Federalism accommodates Nigeria’s linguistic and cultural diversity by allowing states to promote and preserve their unique cultural identities. This inclusivity contributes to a stronger national identity while respecting regional differences.

(viii) Democratic Governance: Federalism supports democratic governance by providing multiple levels of representation. Citizens have the opportunity to participate in local, state, and federal elections, fostering a more inclusive and representative political system.




(i) Economic Growth: Inter-dependence promotes trade and economic integration among nations. By actively participating in global trade networks and promoting regional economic cooperation, Nigeria can attract more foreign direct investment, enhance export opportunities, and stimulate economic growth.

(ii) Market Access: Strengthening inter-dependence allows Nigeria to access international markets more easily. It provides opportunities for Nigerian businesses to expand their customer base, increase their revenue, and access new technologies and knowledge through partnerships and collaborations with foreign companies.

(iii) Technology Transfer: A commitment to inter-dependence facilitates the transfer of technology and innovation. By engaging with technologically advanced countries, Nigeria can acquire essential skills, knowledge, and technology solutions to develop its industries, improve productivity, and enhance its competitiveness on a global scale.

(iv) Enhancing Infrastructure: Inter-dependence promotes international cooperation in infrastructure development. By strategically engaging with other states, Nigeria can benefit from partnerships that lead to improved transportation networks, energy systems, and telecommunications, which are vital for economic growth and social development.

(v) Human Capital Development: Inter-dependence encourages the exchange of knowledge, skills, and expertise among nations. Nigeria can leverage international collaborations to enhance its education and training systems, empower its workforce, and address skill gaps, leading to a more competent and globally competitive workforce.

(vi) Political Stability: A commitment to inter-dependence fosters diplomatic relations and peaceful cooperation among nations. Nigeria can strengthen its position on the global stage by actively engaging in multilateral forums, contributing to conflict resolution initiatives, and promoting peace and stability in the region.

(vii) Cultural Exchange: Inter-dependence promotes cultural understanding and diversity. Nigeria can benefit from the exchange of ideas, values, and traditions with other nations, fostering mutual respect, tolerance, and cooperation. This cultural exchange can enrich Nigeria’s society and contribute to the preservation of its cultural heritage.

(viii) Addressing Global Challenges: Many global challenges, such as climate change, terrorism, and pandemics, require collective efforts and cooperation. By embracing inter-dependence, Nigeria can actively contribute to finding global solutions by collaborating with other states, sharing resources, and participating in international frameworks and agreements.

WAEC GCE government Questions 2023 – First Series

This is How We Provided Waec gce first series government questions and answers 2023

WAEC GCE Government 2023 Questions And Answers
WAEC GCE Government Questions 2023 Second Series







(i) Participation:
Participation in the concept of good governance here is an opportunity for everyone to voice their opinions through institutions or representations. In addition, everyone, without exception, has the right to freedom of association and expression.

(ii) Rule of law:
To implement good governance, the legal framework in the country must be enforced impartially, especially concerning human rights law.

(iii) Transparency:
Transparency means that every policy taken and implemented by the government must be carried out under existing regulations. In addition, there must be a guarantee that any information related to the policy can be accessed by everyone, especially those who are directly affected by the policy.

(iv) Responsiveness:
Good governance needs institutions and processes to attempt to serve all stakeholders within a reasonable time.

(v) Consensus: oriented
This fifth principle is related to the decision-making process. When the decision-making process cannot accommodate everyone’s wishes, then at a minimum, the decision must be a decision that can be accepted by everyone and does not harm anyone.

(vi) Equity and inclusiveness:
Good governance ensures justice for the community. Everyone has the same opportunity to maintain and improve their welfare


(i) Influencing Political Parties: Advocacy groups can cultivate links with political parties to influence policy decisions. This is better done when the party is a party of opposition, as a party in government it will be hindered by time constraints, and policy formation is likely to be top-down. However, when a party is in opposition, it will be more accepting towards a variety of ideas to broaden its support and formulate new policies.

(ii) Letter-writing, Petitions and Marches: Traditionally, the campaigns of pressure groups have included things such as letter-writing, petitions and marches. Petition-signing and letter-writing have been used to good effect at pride marches. These have been influential in the repeal of sodomy laws, support for civil unions and on supporting anti-discrimination legislation.

(iii) Directly Influencing the Legislative Process: In most liberal democracies, advocacy groups tend to use the bureaucracy as the main channel of influence because, in liberal democracies, this is where the decision-making power lies. The aim of advocacy groups here is to attempt to influence a member of the legislature to support their cause by voting a certain way in the legislature.

(iv) Embarking on Legal Action: The judicial branch of government can also be used by advocacy groups to exert influence, especially in states that have codified constitutions.

(v) Direct Action Campaigns: The use of direct action is increasingly popular among pressure groups. The premise of direct group action stems from the concept that traditional methods of influencing government policy are flawed and that more direct protests, acts of civil disobedience and in more extreme cases illegal acts and violence may offer the best opportunity for group success, as they captivate media attention.



(i) Geopolitical Information: The study of government gets people informed on international politics and regional or geographical effects in consideration for decision-making, especially those decisions pertaining to the state. Geopolitics involves international relations as influenced by geopolitical factors. It is the study and understanding of the effects of certain factors such as; demography, economics and geography in relation to politics.

(ii) Political Participation: The study of government unarguably stirs up people’s interest in politics. People who got admitted into the political science department, not being their choice of course are shown to develop an interest in the short run. The study of political science or any government-related course such as government education is, of course, such an interesting course of study.

(iii) To Understand the Socio: Political and Economic Structures and Factors in the State: Leadership and governance demand that the sociological factors that operate in a given territory be put into smooth consideration while decision-making. The study of government gets the intending leader or leaders informed as to such sociological factors and their possible effects on governance. Such factors may include; environmental circumstances, religion, culture, etc.

(iv) Knowledge of the Citizen’s Rights, Obligations and Remedies: The study of government is basically about the structure of the state and governance, the responsibilities of the government towards the citizens, and the citizens’ rights and obligations in the state, including remedies which they could employ upon the breach of their rights and non-performance of the government’s obligation.

(v) Knowledge of History: In the study of politics, history is indispensable. Government and history cannot be studied in isolation. The mastery of the past renders the future predictable, and it has been said to help avoid certain mistakes of the past. Understanding the mistakes of past leaders aids to curb the future occurrence of a similar failure.

(vi) Opportunities: The study of government unarguably creates opportunities for job employment. Government is a social science-related course, and the acquisition of the degree makes one employable in administrative positions in any field, political appointments, ambassadorship, education sector, etc. People may choose to study government for this reason.

(vii) Personal Development: People may choose to study government for the reason of personal development. The knowledge of government is considered social intelligence. People who desire to improve their social intellect may opt for studying government for this reason.



(i) Establish national programmes in academic quality assurance in public and private primary and secondary schools through efficient education inspectorate schemes to be staffed by professionals and retired teachers.

(ii) Fund public tertiary institutions at the level that meets international standards to enable them to provide teaching and research that can fuel rapid national development and transformation.

(iii) Provide special incentives for applied research in tertiary institutions to generate local solutions to development problems and challenges.

(iv) Encourage states and local governments to establish skill development schemes that can provide the appropriate modern workforce for the country’s formal and informal sectors.

(v) Make qualitative health services available to the generality of our people through the Comprehensive Medical Insurance Scheme, and those who cannot meet up their obligation shall become the responsibility of the government until they can take up the responsibility if ever.

(vi) Increase access of school and university students to modern learning resources.

(vii) Provide special funding for organic and green farming through the application of relevant technology.

(viii) Provide special incentives for youths to participate in agricultural settlement schemes through credit facilities and land allocation.


The military rule by decrees which often are not in support with the interest of the people. Nobody can question these decrees. They are to be obeyed.

(ii) Dictatorship:
A military government is a strict government governed through a dictatorship. There is no majority view in this government or the views of the masses

(iii) Corruption:
There is a high level of corruption in a military government. Leaders are not accountable to anybody.

(iv) Absence of rule of law:
Since the military is in charge there is no rule of law because the constitution is suspended under military rule.

(v) Violation of human rights:
Rights of citizens are abused and nobody can seek redress anywhere. The death of Ken Saro Wiwa, a human rights activist is a good example.

(vi) Sanctions from the international community:
Nigeria received several sanctions during the military rule which was not healthy for the economy of Nigeria.

(vii) The Nigerian civil war:
This took place during the military rule in Nigeria. So many lives and properties were lost. The civil war took place between 1967 and 1970.