WAEC Financial Accounting Answers 2023



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WAEC Financial Accounting Answers 2023


Incomplete records refer to financial records that are missing some or all of the necessary information needed to prepare a complete set of financial statements.


(i) Increases the risk of errors: When records are incomplete, there is a greater likelihood of errors being made in the data that is recorded. This can lead to inaccurate financial statements, incorrect tax filings, and ultimately, financial losses for the business.

(ii) Difficulty in making informed decisions: Incomplete records can make it challenging for the management to make informed decisions. When there is a lack of accurate can lead to inaccurate reporting and decision-making based on faulty or incomplete data.

(iii) Legal and Compliance Risks: A company with incomplete records may have trouble meeting legal obligations such as tax regulations and employment laws. Incomplete records can also make it difficult to comply with audits and investigations.

(iv) Impacts on Business Decision-Making: Incomplete records can also limit the ability of a company to make informed business decisions. Without accurate and up-to-date records, a company may miss critical information or opportunities, leading to suboptimal decision-making and ultimately, negative impacts on the business’s bottom line.

(i) Lack of knowledge: Business owners may not have enough knowledge about bookkeeping and accounting practices. This lack of knowledge may result in incomplete records or improper recording of transactions. They may not have the proper accounting software and may not hire a professional bookkeeper, which results in incomplete and inaccurate records.

(ii) Time constraints: Business owners may not have enough time to maintain complete records due to other pressing business concerns. This may mean that they only record certain transactions and disregard others.

(iii) Disorganized record-keeping: Lack of organization or a systematic record-keeping process can result in incomplete records. If businesses do not have a clear system for documenting and organizing their financial transactions, they may miss recording some transactions.

(i) Investors
(ii) Creditors
(iii) Managers
(iv) Government
(v) Employees
(vi) Shareholders
(vii) Suppliers
(viii) Competitors
(ix) Financial Analysts
(x) General Public.

(i) Investors: Investors are interested in accounting information to assess the financial health and performance of a company. They use this information to make informed investment decisions and evaluate the potential returns and risks associated with their investments.

(ii) Creditors: Creditors, such as banks and suppliers, use accounting information to determine the creditworthiness and financial stability of a company. They rely on this information to assess the company’s ability to repay loans or fulfill financial obligations.

(iii) Managers: Managers within an organization use accounting information to monitor and evaluate the financial performance of the company. They rely on this information to make strategic decisions, allocate resources, and identify areas for improvement or cost-saving measures.

(iv) Government Agencies: Government agencies, such as tax authorities and regulatory bodies, use accounting information to ensure compliance with financial reporting standards, assess tax liabilities, and monitor the financial health of businesses within their jurisdiction.

(v) Employees: Employees are interested in accounting information, particularly financial statements, to evaluate the financial stability and profitability of the company they work for. It helps them gauge job security and potential for career growth within the organization.

(vi) Shareholders: Shareholders, who own shares in a company, are interested in accounting information to assess the company’s financial performance, dividends, and overall value. This information helps them evaluate the returns on their investment and make decisions related to buying or selling shares.

(vii) Suppliers: Suppliers analyze accounting information to evaluate the financial stability and payment capability of their customers. This helps them assess the creditworthiness and manage any risks associated with extending credit or providing goods and services on credit terms.

(viii) Competitors: Competitors may use accounting information, such as financial statements, to benchmark their own performance against industry peers. It provides insights into the financial strategies and competitive position of other companies, aiding in strategic decision-making.

(ix) Financial Analysts: Financial analysts rely on accounting information to analyze and interpret financial statements, assess company performance, and make recommendations to investors or clients. They use this information to provide insights, forecasts, and valuations of companies.

(x) General Public: The general public, including consumers and the local community, may have an interest in accounting information to evaluate the financial stability, ethical practices, and social responsibility of companies. This information can influence public perception, consumer behavior, and public trust in the organization.

Accounting ratios are mathematical calculations used to evaluate and analyze the financial performance and position of a company. These ratios are derived from the financial statements, such as the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement, and provide insights into various aspects of a company’s operations, profitability, liquidity, solvency, and efficiency.


Accounting ratios, also known as financial ratios, are quantitative tools used to analyze and interpret financial statements. They are derived from the financial data contained in the balance sheet, income statement, and cash flow statement of a company. Accounting ratios help assess the financial performance, efficiency, liquidity, profitability, and solvency of an organization.

These ratios provide meaningf

(Pick Any ONE)
-Current ratio
-Quick ratio
-Cash ratio

(i) Accounting ratios are used to assess the overall performance of a company by analyzing key indicators such as return on investment (ROI), return on assets (ROA), and return on equity (ROE).
(ii) Accounting ratios such as current ratio, quick ratio, and debt-to-equity ratio help assess the financial health and stability of a business.
(iii) Accounting ratios such as gross profit margin, net profit margin, and return on sales (ROS) are used to measure a company’s profitability.
(iv) Accounting ratios like current ratio and quick ratio help evaluate a company’s liquidity position and its ability to meet short-term obligations.
(v) Accounting ratios play a crucial role in investment analysis by allowing investors use ratios like earnings per share (EPS), price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio, and dividend yield to assess the investment potential of a company’s stock.
(vi) Lenders and creditors use accounting ratios to evaluate a company’s creditworthiness and determine its borrowing capacity.
(vii) Accounting ratios are used to compare a company’s performance with industry averages or competitors.

(i) Accounting ratios are based on historical financial statements, which may not accurately reflect the current financial position or future prospects of a company.
(ii) Accounting ratios provide numerical indicators but often lack the context behind the numbers.
(iii) Accounting ratios heavily rely on the accuracy and reliability of financial statements. However, financial statements can be subjective and influenced by management judgments, accounting policies, and potential manipulation. Inaccurate or misleading financial statements can lead to distorted ratio analysis.
(iv) Accounting ratios primarily focus on financial data, such as balance sheets and income statements, while excluding non-financial aspects like customer satisfaction, employee morale, or brand value.
(v) Varying reporting practices of different companies can distort the accuracy and comparability of ratios, limiting their usefulness for benchmarking or industry analysis.
(vi) Financial statements are typically prepared on a quarterly or annual basis, leading to a time lag between the occurrence of events and their reflection in the ratios.
(vii) Accounting ratios often overlook non-financial factors such as environmental sustainability, social responsibility, or corporate governance practices.


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