NECO GCE Literature In English 2022 Questions And Answers [Prose & Obj]

NECO GCE Literature In English 2022 Questions And Answers

NECO GCE Literature In English 2022 Questions And Answers

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The National Examination Council (NECO) Has Scheduled The Neco GCE Literature In English 2022 Paper To Kick Of On The 1st December, 2022.

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NECO GCE Literature In English 2022 Questions And Answers

Neco GCE Literature In English 2022 Questions And Answers

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Neco gce literature Poetry and Drama Answers 2022


Musa is a man with questionable character, full of falsehood and deceit. Musa is a seer and medicine man in Mende kingdom who is supposed to be the eye of the gods and the custodian of the culture and morality in the land, but his activities in the kingdom are carried out contrarily. He allows himself to be used as a dog of war and puppet by devil incarnate, Lamboi who lacks human feelings.

Musa is co-opted by Lamboi into the murder of Gbanya. He uses alligator gall to poison chief Gbanya’s water, all in a bid for Lamboi to succeed him. Musa is also portrayed as a wicked seer, because according to Lamboi, Musa killed Yattah’s son and Mama Kadi’s daughter.
However, Musa continues in his wicked ways with his partner in crime, Lamboi. This time, Yoko next plan is not only to make Moyamba ungovernable for Yoko but also to implicate her and turn the people against her. To achieve this, Lamboi connives with Musa to kidnap and kill Ndapi and Jilo’s daughter. And when it is done, both will stir the women and others to rebel against the Queen. The people would be reliably informed that Yoko used her as a sacrifice to acquire more powers so that the Governor will be at her beck and calls and her, reign will be rendered useless and destabilized. This singular act of betrayal contributes to what leads Yoko to commit suicide because she feels betrayed by her own blood brother when she finds out through the divination of Gbeni.


The tragic theme of a colonial oppression is introduced at the beginning of the play when Gbanya narrates the dreams he had last night to Yoko on how the Governor humiliated him in the eyes of his people. Gbanya vows to receive and treat the Governor well in order not to incur his wrath. This shows that the setting of the play is connected to a pre-colonial era where Governors were appointed to oversee the activities of African communities. And some of these Governors, representatives of Imperial Majesty tend to overzealously exploit the people but also treat them as sub-humans or humiliate them when the people in the community err against them and that is exactly what Dr. Samuel Rowe, the Governor does to Gbanya when he finds out that the people have not stopped engaging in the war despite his stern warning to desist from such barbaric act. As a punitive measure or punishment, Gbanya the chief of Senehun is humiliated before his people. Rowe orders the soldiers to stretch Gbanya out on the ground. He also fires a shot from his pistol in the air to threaten Lavalie and Ndapi not to retaliate, Rowe takes the rice and cattle Gbanya entertained him with and zoom off.
Moreover, colonial domination also makes the chief and the people, not to have confidence in themselves because they feel and believe that the Governor, the white man is awash with superior and supreme power. That is why even when Rowe sends his Messengers to Moyamba, the people especially the chief treat him well like the Imperial Majesty herself.

Lastly, the people receive a dirty slaps on their faces when the Governor turns against them to gives out a portion of land that belongs to them to the chiefdom of Bo. He sends a message through his messenger stating that the message came from his Highness, the Governor South of Bandajama, the six villages to the north of the Tabe River now belong to the people of the chiefdom of Bo.


Sidi is the village belle of Ilujinle. She’s very beautiful and is acutely aware of that fact, especially once the stranger returns to the village with a magazine of photographs that show Sidi in all her glory. Seeing the photographs makes Sidi obsessed with her own image and gives her an exaggerated sense of her power over men. Both Lakunle and Baroka wish to marry Sidi, but she doesn’t act particularly interested in marrying either of them—she deems Baroka too old, and Lakunle insults her by calling her dumb and referring to her as a “bush-girl.” However, she indicates that she supports her village’s traditional way of life by implying that she’d marry any man, provided he paid her bride price.

(i) Tradition versus Modernity:

The play explores the theme of tradition and modernity in the wake of early colonialism which is the primary conflict in the play. The tradition in question is the Yoruba customs against a western conception of progress and modernity as represented by the conflict between Baroka and Lakunle for Sidi’s hand in marriage. Lakunle who represents the modern Nigerian man, wears Western clothing, speaks and behaves like an English man, and has been educated in a presumably British school. His supreme desire is to turn llunjunle into a modern paradise like the city of Lagos. He actively despises the traditional customs of his village and the people who pledge support to them. This is best exemplified when Lakunle refuses to pay Sidi’s bride price.
However, Baroka on the other hand is an ant-modernist and his extreme desire is to preserve the village’s traditional way of life. Lakunle who finds Baroka’s lifestyle and views archaic, also describes how Baroka paid off a surveyor not to construct train tracks through the outskirts of llunjunle, thereby preventing the village from experiencing the modern world. Also, Baroka clearly demonstrates that he does not hate modernity or progress, and he does not want it imposed on him or bend the village’s way of life all in the name of civilization and modernity. Baroka wishes to add Sidi to his many wives which are fully accepted by the custom of the land, while Lakunle dreams of one wife according to the dictate of western culture. According to the tradition, when Baroka dies, Sidi will become the head wife of the new Bale, a position that would make her one of the most powerful women in llunjunle. As soon as she realizes that the idea of modern marriage may make her less powerful with the fewer rights she opts for traditional marriage. In the end, Baroka triumphs in the fight for Sidi’s hand in marriage. This shows African ways of life are still a lot more supreme than the western culture that appears more complex, complicated, and incomprehensible.

(ii) Culture Conflict (clash of Cultures):

The play examines the clash of two distinct cultures that is the conflict between African and European customs or ways of life. Baroka who is the proponent of traditional culture tries hard to prevent the advent of western civilization and foreign values into llunjunle as the selfish Baroka bribes the surveyor to divert the railway track away from llunjunle, thereby foiling the intending progress in the village. This clash is also seen when the stranger from Lagos, (Photo Journalist), the seat of western civilization, makes the indigenous culture less attractive as he causes a stir during his visit to llunjunle. The people describe his camera as a “one-eyed box” and his motor car as “the devil’s own horse”. The photographs on the cover page and inside of Lagos Man’s Magazine boosts Sidi’s ego and this almost makes her overlook her union with Baroka, for she begins to attract more importance to her growing fame.
Also, the main conflict in the play shifts away from tradition versus modernity to individuality to personal worldview. For instance, Baroka’s proposed non-functioning stamp-making machine”, a strange machine is a symbol of modernity which he brainwashes Sidi with initially to final seduction scene in order to woo her. He also assures Sidi that the stamp will soon start producing Sidi’s image

(iii) The theme of Love and Marriage:

The play examines the idea of love and marriage from two perspectives. African tradition and European ideas of marriage. The former is basically practical which involves the payment of bride price. Sidi at first confesses to Lakunle that she is willing to marry him any day, any time, but the full bride price must be paid in full because there is a thin line between bride price and virginity.
Sidi’s two eligible suitors (Lakunle and Baroka) are driven by different ideas. Lakunle wants to woo Sidi with empty, unrealistic, imaginary, and vague western ideas; for he promises her sophisticated life of western cultures which involves eating with cutleries (knives and forks), walking side by side in the street, kiss her as all educated men do but Sidi dislikes such practices.
Baroka on his part is devising a special plan to woo and win her. Firstly, he sends Sadiku to woo her on his behalf but Sidi turns down the offer of marriage. Baroka then deceives Sadiku that he is impotent in order to lure Sidi into his shady plan. Sid visits Baroka to mock him for his impotence but ends up in his seduction trap. In the end, Sidi rejects Lakunle’s western ideas and chooses the traditional lifestyle championed by Baroka.


(i) Class Struggle and Education:

The play centers on class struggle and the status of education in our society. Jimmy comes from a working class background, but has been highly educated. He went to a university but not gainfully employed. He is still stuck running to sweet stall, and he does not feel fully comfortable and hasn’t been accepted into the upper classes. He speaks and uses Jaw breaking words, read newspapers, but he sometimes has to look these words up in a dictionary.

Alison and Jimmy’s relationship is the main meeting point where class struggle unfolds. Alison is from an upper class background very different from Jimmy’s. Both portray the struggle between the two classes in military terms as the two just can’t blend. Jimmy is full of pride because of his education and this makes him alienate, separate and look down on others who are not so educated like himself, Cliff is such a character in the text.

(ii) Theme of Love and Instability:

The nature of love in the play is quite controversial; Jimmy and Alison’s marriage is consummated in the ground of revenge. Their relationship is seen as master and servant relationship and they barely enjoy peace and harmony at home as Jimmy is always at the control of everything, while Alison’s business is to remain silent. Jimmy believes that love is pain and suffering. He therefore scorns Cliff and Alison’s love for each other, which is gentle fondness that does not correspond to his own brand of passionate, angry feeling. Jimmy’s definition of love has to do with the class tensions between Jimmy and Alison, and she tells her father, colonel Redfern that Jimmy married her out of sense of revenge against the upper classes. It was born out of sense of competition between classes.

It is clear that Jimmy and Alison’s love for each other is not characterized by much tenderness though they do manage to exhibit one when they play their animal game. Jimmy and Alison as the beer and squirrel are able to express more simple affection for each other, but only in a dehumanized manner. In the first scene, Jimmy describes the game as a retreat from organized society. Their relationship is marred by class struggle anger and suffering.

Jimmy and Alison’s relationship lack feeling and stability, because Jimmy especially, does not nurse any aorta of feeling for Alison, as he feels undaunted or not worry at all when she lost her first baby, Alison who is ever ready to be with Jimmy walks away and returns quickly to him and they both renew their vows and opts for peace.

(iii) Theme of Feminism and Gender Inequality:

Jimmy is seen as a misogynist in the play, that is, one who hates women. He treats the two women in the play with disdain and utter rejection. Alison seems to be doing the household work and otherwise be ignorant of any social development. On the contrary, Jimmy treats her badly and has no regard for her as a wife by also verbally abusing her because in his eyes she is lazy and does not know how to lead a real life. Real life to Jimmy means that you have to suffer and have experienced real emotions.

While Cliff and Alison’s father are very caring towards Alison, Jimmy disrespects and humiliates her because is a mere woman. Cliff helps bandages her wound and her father rescues her from the cruelty of her domestic life with Jimmy. Jimmy also accuses Alison’s mother when he called her “old bitch and also wishes she was dead”. He resents her because she represents an upper class, educated ones who object to his marriage with Alison. Jimmy also despises Helena’s being too churchy. He feels nothing when Helena intends to leave his house before Alison resurfaces for the second time towards the end of the play.

Also, Alison and her father, colonel Redfern want too fight against gender inequality, silently without any bridge of peace by leaving Jimmy’s house. The colonel plans to take Alison away in order to restore peace and balance to her existence. Everything is resolved and Jimmy comes back to his senses and sues for peace in his household.


Cliff is Jimmy’s friend, also from the working class. He is a gentle man to the core, a direct opposite of Jimmy porter. He does not have Jimmy’s fire, wit or bossy and bully attitude like him; he also lacks cruelty and verbal abuse on others. He is genuinely fond of Alison and shows his appreciation for her housekeeping efforts, and he tries also to defend her from Jimmy’s verbal and physical abuse. Cliff personally bandages Alison’s arm after she gets burnt.

Cliff is the most empathetic and sensitive character in the play, because he does not only share in others’ problem but also seems to understand what other people are feeling. He is like a go between Jimmy and Alison because he seems to sacrifice time to make things right for them, even when Helena thinks that she hates Jimmy, Cliff guesses that he really desires him, and he is the only person who senses Alison’s attempt to break up the marriage. Cliff’s hatred for Helena makes him to move out of Jimmy’s house when he learnt about her attempt to move in.

Cliff is a relaxed and easy-going fellow, with natural intelligence of the self taught. His affectionate relationship with Alison bothers on a sexual one, but both of them are content with comfortable fondness rather than burning passion. Cliff eventually decides to leave to pursue his own life, rather than staying in Jimmy’s apartment.

Cliff is good nature and he serves as Alison’s confidant who is ever willing to offer his support to her. He admonishes Alison never to call her relationship with Jimmy a quit when she announces that she does not have anything to do with love.

(i)Rhetorical Question
There is an instance of rhetorical question (in any case, an enjambment) in lines 35-36: “were we led all that way for Birth or Death?”

(i)Pun; There is an instance of pun in line 33 of the poem where the poetic persona played upon the phrase “set down”. The first “set down” is a phrasal verb while the second “set down” modified with the determiner “this” is nominalised. Apart from the distinction in word class, “set down” is also used in different senses. While the first use of “set down” denotes putting something down, the other use of “set down” implies depression and disappointment.

(iii)Allusion; There is an instance of literary allusion in the opening lines of the poem. Allusion, according to Oxford Concise Dictionary of Literary Terms, is defined as “an indirect or passing reference to some event, person, place, or artistic work, the nature and relevance of which is not explained by the writer but relies on the reader’s familiarity with what is thus mentioned.” Within the context of the poem, there is a case of literary allusion. The opening lines of the poem allude to a Christian sermon given by the Bishop of Winchester

(i)African Beauty; The poem gives prominence to the admiration and glorification of the beauty of the black woman; hence the whole of the poem is devoted to the beauty of the black woman. The poet admires the beautiful smooth skin of the African woman, which strikes his heart” like the lighting of the eagle” he appreciates the powerful black presence of the natural black woman around him right from his childhood. The African woman’s body is then compared to the of a ripened fruit, and whose resonant contralto voice is regarded as the spiritual anthem of the nation. The poet describes the African woman as elegant, graceful, and pure in all her physical attributes. This, the poet achieved by evoking elements of beauty in the poem, such as: ” sun-baked pass”, the “heart of summer” “the heart of noon”, ” firm-fleshed ripe fruit”, somber raptures of black wine” to refer to African that is personified as a Naked woman, a Black woman in the poem.

(ii)The Nurturing Quality of a Black Woman; In the poem, the poet does not cease to express the unbeatable qualities of a black woman as the source and sustainer of the growing child. The poet expresses his affection and appreciation to the black woman who had care tenderly in the gentleness of her hands until he enters the “promised land” of adulthood (Lines 1- 10). The ability of a black woman to give birth and sustain the life of the infant child is applauded. Also, the role of the African woman as the first teacher of the child is uncovered by the poet, as he remembers his mother’s tutelage at the various stages of childhood that sustained his growth into adulthood. (Line 4—5)
“The Theme of Praises of the Africa Culture.

(iii)The theme of the praises of the Africa; culture cannot be overlooked in the poem. The poet’s choice of words to enchant the praises of the black woman is extraordinary.
In lines 1-2, the poet made a direct call of a naked woman, a black woman who is “clothed” with her color which is life. The poet showers praise on the natural black color of the African woman’s skin, and everything about the black woman. Her smooth skin is compared to that of an athletel The poet further praises the African woman as graceful and elegant as a gazelle. The natural beauty of the black woman in the poem is the richness of the African culture before the colonization.

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