2023 NABTEB Government Questions and Answers Expo

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2023 NABTEB Government Questions and Answers

The National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) Has Scheduled The 2023 Nabteb Government Questions and Answers Paper To Kick of on Thursday 6th July, 2023.

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2023 NABTEB Government Questions and Answers

In this section, you will read the steps and requirements needed for you to get Nabteb Government 2023 Questions And Answers before exam.

NABTEB Government 2023 Paper is Categorized in to 2 parts:

  • NABTEB Government Theory 2023
  • NABTEB Government Objective 2023

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NABTEB Government Expo 2023

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NABTEB Government Answer 2023

NABTEB GOVERNMENT ANSWERS

(Answer FIVE Questions Only; At least TWO from Each Part)

PART I

(1)
(i) Capitalism: Capitalism is an economic and political system in which private individuals or corporations own and control the means of production and distribution of goods and services. It is characterized by private ownership, free market competition, and profit-seeking as the driving force behind economic activities. In a capitalist system, prices and wages are determined by supply and demand, and individuals are motivated by self-interest and the pursuit of profit.

(ii) Socialism: Socialism is an economic and political system that advocates for collective ownership and democratic control of the means of production. It aims to distribute wealth and resources more equally among members of society. In a socialist system, the government or the community as a whole may own and manage industries, while economic decisions are made collectively. The goal of socialism is to promote social justice, reduce inequality, and provide public services and welfare for all citizens.

(iii) Communism: Communism is a socio-economic ideology and a political system that aims to establish a classless, stateless society where all property is commonly owned. In a communist system, the means of production are owned and controlled by the community as a whole. The central principle of communism is “from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs,” emphasizing the equitable distribution of resources and the elimination of social classes. In practice, true communism has not been fully realized in any society to date.

(iv) Feudalism: Feudalism was a social and economic system that was prevalent in medieval Europe. It was characterized by a hierarchical structure where land was owned by a monarch or noble, and it was granted to vassals in exchange for military service and other obligations. The vassals, in turn, granted smaller portions of land to sub-vassals and peasants, who worked the land and provided goods and services to the higher-ranking individuals.

(v) Totalitarianism: Totalitarianism is a political system characterized by absolute and centralized control over all aspects of public and private life. It is usually associated with a single ruling party or leader who exercises total authority, suppresses dissent, and curtails individual freedoms and civil liberties. Totalitarian regimes often employ propaganda, censorship, surveillance, and state-controlled media to maintain control and suppress opposition. Examples of totalitarian regimes include Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler.

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(2a)
Federalism is a political system that involves the division of power between a central government and multiple subnational governments, such as states or local governments. In a federal system, both the central government and the subnational governments have their own distinct areas of authority and share powers in specific areas. The division of powers is usually outlined in a constitution, which serves as the supreme law of the land. This power sharing has succeeded in making each level of government independent and autonomous.

(2b)
(i) Accommodation of Regional Diversity: Federalism is often adopted by countries with diverse regional identities, cultures, languages, or ethnic groups. It allows for the recognition and accommodation of these regional differences by granting subnational entities a degree of autonomy in decision-making. This helps ensure that the interests and concerns of different regions are taken into account and can contribute to a more inclusive and harmonious society.

(ii) Protection of Minority Rights: Federalism can provide a mechanism to protect the rights of minority groups. By granting subnational entities a certain level of autonomy, minority groups within a country can have a greater say in decision-making processes that affect them directly. This can help safeguard their cultural, linguistic, and political rights and prevent the dominance of the majority group.

(iii) Distribution of Power and Checks and Balances: One of the primary reasons for adopting federalism is to distribute power between the central and subnational governments. This ensures that no single authority becomes too powerful or abuses its power. Federalism establishes a system of checks and balances, where different levels of government have the ability to monitor and limit each other’s actions, promoting accountability and preventing the concentration of power.

(iv) Managing Conflict and Promoting Unity: Federalism can be employed as a means to manage and resolve conflicts within a country. By granting subnational entities a level of self-governance, it provides a platform for peaceful negotiation and accommodation of different interests. Federalism can help foster a sense of unity and shared identity by allowing diverse regions to have a stake in the decision-making process and participate in shaping the nation’s policies.

(v) Efficiency and Local Governance: Federalism can enhance governance efficiency by allowing decisions to be made at the most appropriate level of government. Local issues and concerns can be addressed by subnational governments that are closer to the people and have a better understanding of the local context. This can lead to more effective and responsive governance, as policies and programs can be tailored to meet the specific needs of different regions.

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(4a)
A political party is an organized group of individuals who share common political goals and objectives and work together to gain political power and influence. Political parties aim to represent the interests and aspirations of their members and supporters by participating in elections, shaping public opinion, and influencing government policies. They typically have a defined ideology, platform, and organizational structure to achieve their objectives.

(4b)
(i) Branch or mass parties: These are political parties that are structured to allow as many citizens as possible to take membership. Membership of mass parties are mainly composed of different sections of the society. The programme or manifestos of such parties are directed towards the welfare of the people.

(ii) Caucus or elitist parties: They consist of individuals from the upper class in society who believe that the control of government should be their preserve. Additionally, it should be in the hands of those with distinction and of high intellectual standing.

(iii) Broker parties: It is a party of both the rich and the poor. They work towards bridging the gap between the rich and the poor, and promoting equality and welfare of the people.

(iv) Charismatic parties: These parties are formed by individuals with unique and enviable qualities, talent, etc, People are attracted to these parties because of the charisma of those individuals that formed them. e.g. NPC of Alhaji Ahmadu Bello, the Sardauna of Sokoto in the first Republic, NCNC of Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe, and A.G.ofChiefObafemi Awolowo.

(v) Religious parties: This is a type of political party that forms based on the religious doctrines existing in a country. In some countries, religious parties are very strong in the political process e.g Iran.

(4c)
[Pick Five Only]
(i) It serves as a link
(ii) Social welfare and humanitarian services
(iii) Provision of organisation
(iv) Political education
(v) Change of government
(vi) Machinery for recruitment

================================================

(5a)
Public Opinion: Public opinion refers to the collective beliefs, attitudes, and judgments held by the general population on various issues, events, policies, and political matters. It represents the views and sentiments of the public on matters of social, political, and economic importance. Public opinion is influenced by factors such as individual values, personal experiences, socialization, media, and interactions with others.

(5b)
(i) Mass media: Mass media outlets, including newspapers, television, radio, and online platforms, report on government activities, policies, and events. Through news coverage, journalists provide information and analysis that can shape public opinion. The tone, framing, and content of news stories can influence how the public perceives the government and its actions.

(ii) Trade unions: Trade unions can play a significant role in ascertaining public opinion concerning a particular government. They represent a specific segment of the population and provide a platform for workers to collectively express their opinions on government actions. Their activities and engagement with members and policymakers offer insights into public opinion within the workforce, contributing to a broader understanding of the public sentiment towards a particular government.

(iii) Political parties: Political parties play a critical role in representing public opinion and acting as intermediaries between the public and the government. By formulating platforms, conducting campaigns, analyzing election results, engaging with members, and conducting opinion research, political parties contribute to the understanding of public opinion concerning a particular government.

(iv) Surveys and Opinion Polls: Surveys and opinion polls involve systematically collecting data by asking a sample of individuals about their opinions on specific issues. This method often uses questionnaires or interviews to gather information. Surveys and opinion polls aim to provide a snapshot of public opinion by sampling a representative portion of the population.

(v) Elections and Referendums: Elections and referendums serve as a direct way to gauge public opinion by allowing citizens to cast their votes on specific candidates, political parties, or policy issues. The electoral outcomes and referendum results provide a measure of public preference and opinion. While elections are periodic, they provide a comprehensive view of public opinion by allowing citizens to exercise their voting rights.

================================================

*PART II*

(6a)
Nationalism from the perspective of the colonized people of Africa represents their collective desire for self-rule, independence, and cultural reclamation. It signifies a strong sense of national identity and consciousness, rejecting the subjugation and exploitation imposed by colonial powers. Colonized Africans aimed to establish their own nations, free from foreign domination, and governed by their own people. Nationalism also encompassed the revitalization of indigenous cultures, languages, and traditions as a means to assert their distinctiveness and challenge the denigration of African heritage. Furthermore, the ideology of Pan-Africanism played a significant role, promoting unity and solidarity among Africans in their struggle against colonialism. Nationalism in Africa was driven by the pursuit of sovereignty, dignity, and the aspiration for a liberated and self-governing continent.

(6b)
(i) The introduction of western education: This was one of the major factors that led to the growth of nationalism in Nigeria. Western education provided a common language with which West Africa used to fight colonialism. It also enlightened people of West Africa to the evils in colonialism and that colonial rule was synonymous with violence which must be removed.

(ii) Increased cost of living: Another factor that led to the growth of nationalism in Nigeria was the prices of commodities which brought about high cost of living and fall in the standard of living thus life was made intolerable for the people.

(iii) Emergence of vibrant political parties: No doubt, political parties during the colonial era also gave rise to nationalist activities in Nigeria and in west Africa as a whole. The emergence and growth of vibrant political parties like NNDP, CPP, NCNC, AG, etc, Led by vibrant and never say die politician like Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo etc, resuscitated the spirit of nationalism in Nigeria.

(iv) Economic exploitation and dominance: When the colonial masters came to Nigeria, they started monopolizing all the trade activities. This act by the European firms or companies and its attendant economic exploitation also gave rise to the growth of nationalism in Nigeria and the desire of Africa to participate in the trade of their land and control their own economy. This was also one of the causes of the Aba women riot of 1929.

(v) Return of educated elites: When the colonial masters came to West Africa, almost everyone was not educated and thus, could not understand the real aim of the colonial masters. The return of some educated elites like Nkrumah, Hartford, Azikiwe, Awolowo, Macaulay etc, who studied in foreign independent countries after seeing what a country enjoys by being independent came back to awake the spirit of nationalism in west Africa.

===============================================

(7a)
The origin of the 1979 Constitution in Nigeria can be traced back to the military regime led by General Olusegun Obasanjo. Following the military coup in 1975 that ousted General Yakubu Gowon, General Murtala Ramat Mohammed assumed power. Under his administration, a Constitutional Drafting Committee (CDC) was established in 1975 to draft a new constitution for the country.

The CDC, composed of legal experts and representatives from various sectors of society, engaged in extensive consultations and public hearings to gather input from the Nigerian people. The drafting process aimed to address the shortcomings of the 1963 Republican Constitution and address the demands for a more democratic and inclusive system of governance.

The 1979 Constitution was subsequently promulgated by the military government and served as the supreme law of Nigeria when civilian rule was restored in 1979. It marked Nigeria’s transition from military rule to the Second Republic, which lasted from 1979 to 1983.

(7b)
(i) It introduced presidential system of government
(ii) The constitution was supreme law of the land
(iii) Unicameral legislature at the state level was practiced
(iv) Bicameral Legislature was established, which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
(v) Granting of executive powers to the president

=================================================

(9a)
The June 12, 1993 presidential election crisis in Nigeria was a significant political event marked by controversy and turmoil. The election was held to determine the president following the annulment of the previous election in 1993. Chief MKO Abiola, a prominent businessman and politician, emerged as the popular candidate. However, the military government, led by General Ibrahim Babangida, annulled the election results, triggering widespread protests and civil unrest across the country. The crisis escalated with strikes, demonstrations, and a clampdown by security forces. The pro-democracy movement gained momentum, demanding the recognition of the election results. The crisis eventually led to the resignation of General Babangida and the installation of an interim government, but it also ushered in a period of political instability that lasted for several years.

(9b)
(i) Political crises often lead to social unrest, protests, and demonstrations as citizens express their dissatisfaction and demand political change.
(ii) Economic activities may be disrupted, leading to business closures, unemployment, and reduced economic growth.
(iii) Crises can deepen political divisions and increase polarization within society.
(iv) Political crises can undermine democratic institutions and processes.
(v) Political crises can strain diplomatic relations with other countries.